Gene Description

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Gene Description


VKORC1 encodes the vitamin K epoxide reductase protein, the targeted enzyme of Warfarin. CPIC recommends using VKORC1 genotype, together with CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and rs12777823 genotype to guide warfarin dosing.1

Warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant worldwide. Warfarin dosing is especially challenging mainly due to its narrow therapeutic index and wide interpatient variability in pharmacokinetics. Several genes have been associated with the observed interpatient variability.2 Among all, CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and rs12777823 show the strongest evidence and are used by CPIC to provide recommendations for warfarin dosing.1


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  1. Johnson JA, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for Pharmacogenetics-guided Warfarin Dosing: 2017 Update. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017;102(3):397-404.
  2. Whirl-Carrillo M, et al. Pharmacogenomics Knowledge for Personalized Medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;92(4):414-17.